HWISE Scholar Highlight – Dr. Melissa Beresford

Dr. Melissa Beresford is this month’s HWISE Scholar Highlight.

Dr. Melissa Beresford is a postdoctoral research fellow with the Global Ethnohydrology Studyin the School of Human Evolution and Social Change at Arizona State University. Beginning in fall 2019, she will be an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at San José State University.

Dr. Beresford is an economic anthropologist focused on human responses to economic inequality and resource insecurity. Her research examines (1) community-based economies, (2) efforts to create alternative (hybrid/non-market) economies, and (3) how such economies can be used (or not) to address resource insecurity. Her doctoral research in Cape Town, South Africa examined how residents in under-resourced environments mobilize entrepreneurial practices to bring about economic transformation. Based on this research, she is currently developing a new project that examines how people rely upon and mobilize entrepreneurship in response to water insecurity.

In her role with the Global Ethnohydrology Study—led by Drs. Amber Wutich and Alexandra Brewis—Dr. Beresford is currently working with fellow HWISE member Dr. Katie Meehan of King’s College London to launch an international study in the summer of 2019 that examines household experiences of plumbing poverty in cross-cultural perspective. The aim of this project is to understand how people respond to and navigate inadequate water infrastructure in their homes and how such processes shape overall experiences of household water insecurity. 

Recent Publications:

Wutich, A., Beresford, M., & Carvajal, C. (2016). Can informal water vendors deliver on the promise of a human right to water? Results from Cochabamba, BoliviaWorld Development79, 14-24.

Wutich, A. and Beresford, M. The Economic Anthropology of Water. Economic Anthropology. Forthcoming June 2019.

Wutich, A. and Beresford, M. (Eds.). “Water and Economy” special issue of Economic Anthropology. Forthcoming June 2019.

For more information and a list of her current research projects, visit her website at https://isearch.asu.edu/profile/1625318 and on twitter @mhberesford.

HWISE-RCN Launches at AAG19

We are excited to announce HWISE events at the American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting from April 3-7, 2019 in Washington, DC. 

On April 4, we will have special sessions all day from 8:00 AM – 6:00 PM in Balcony A, Mezzanine Level, Marriott Wardman Park Hotel

There will be five panels with the following themes: HWISE Data, Methodological Advances, Thematic Engagements, Research in Economically Advanced Countries, and Quantitative Approaches. Please look forward to the following presentations:

Progress in Household Water Insecurity Research 1: HWISE Data

  • “Development & Uses of a Validated Scale to Measure Household Water Insecurity Cross-Culturally” Dr. Sera Young (Northwestern University), Dr. Godfred Boateng (Harvard University), Dr. Zeina Jamaluddine (American University of Beirut), Joshua Miller (Northwestern University), Dr. Edward Frongillo (University of South Carolina) Dr. Torsten Neilands (UCSF), Shalean Collins (Northwestern University), Dr. Amber Wutich (Arizona State University), Dr. Wendy Jepson (Texas A&M University), Dr. Justin Stoler (University of Miami), HWISE Research Coordination Network, Northwestern University
  • “Water Sharing: A Global Response to Water Insecurity” Dr. Amber Wutich (Arizona State University), Dr. Alex Brewis (Arizona State University), Dr. Asher Rosinger (Penn State University)
  • “Household water insecurity, seasonality, and public health challenges in urban Mexico: A cross-sectional study in Torreon” Dr. Genny Carrillo (Texas A&M University School of Public Health), Dr. Wendy Jepson (Texas A&M University College of Geosciences), Dr. Javier Moran Martinez (Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Escuela de Medicina), Dr. Alejandra Lopez Guerrero (Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila Unidad Torreon, Escuela de Psicologia), Dr. Felipe Uribe Salas (El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Piedras Negras, Coahuila)
  • “Water Insecurity, Injustice, Gender and Tourism” Dr. Stroma Cole (University of the West of England-Bristol)
  • “Household water technology preferences as expressed in the HWISE data set” Dr. Chad Staddon (University of the West of England-Bristol)

Progress in Household Water Insecurity Research 2: Methodological Advances

  • “Water security and risks – Early findings from a ‘water diary’ study in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Kenya” Dr. Sonia Hoque (Oxford University), Dr. Robert Hope (Oxford University)
  • “’But who are you thinking of giving these cameras to?’: Reflections on Photovoice to Research Household Water Insecurity in Urban Brazil” Flavia Bonolo Dantas (Texas A&M University), Dr. Wendy Jepson (Texas A&M University), Dr. Jader Santos (Universidade Federal do Ceará)
  • “Measuring empowerment in the water and sanitation sector: Concept mapping with stakeholders in Ghana and Burkina Faso” Dr. Elijah Bisung (Queen’s University), Dr. Sarah Dickin (Stockholm Environment Institute)
  • “Using Spatial Video to Analyze and Map Water Access Challenges in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania” Dr. Sarah Smiley (Kent State University)
  • “Story-mapping Household Water Insecurity in Nepal’s Kathmandu Valley” Olivia Molden (University of Oregon)

Progress in Household Water Insecurity Research 3: Thematic Engagements

  • “Gendered experiences of household water insecurity: practicing menstrual hygiene in the Low Income Areas of Lilongwe, Malawi” Dr. Cecilia Alda Vidal (University of Manchester)
  • “A critical ethnographic analysis of women’s demands for water amidst chronic water insecurity and hygiene behavior-change interventions in rural Amhara, Ethiopia” Yihenew Tesfayey (Oregon State University), Roza Abesha Feyisa (Independent Researcher), Mulat Woreta (Emory Ehtiopia), Dr. Matthew C. Freeman (Emory University), Dr. Kenneth Maes (Oregon State University)
  • “Water Operator Partnerships: Challenges and Opportunities for Improving Utility Performance and Household Access” Andrea Beck (MIT)
  • “Microbial and Trace Metal Analysis of Drinking Water in Lago Agrio, Ecuador” Claudia Dias-Combs “Syracuse University”
  • “Towards a comprehensive geography of sanitation: Using mixed-methods to explore place-making in Morogoro, Tanzania” Dr. Cassandra Workman (North Carolina State University)

Progress in Household Water Insecurity Research 4: Research in Economically Advanced Countries

  • “Indigenizing Water Security” Dr. Robert Patrick (University of Saskatchewan)
  • “The Flint Water Crisis and the Multiple Dimensions of Water Insecurity” Dr. Ben Pauli, (Kettering University)
  • “Drinking Water Access and Dynamics of Disenfranchisement” Dr. Jonathan London (ept of Human Ecology/ Community and Regional Development), Amanda Fencl (UC Davis), Mia Dawson (UC Davis), Peter Nguyen (UC Davis), Alfonso Aranda (UC Davis), Camille Pannu (Water Justice Clinic, UC Davis), Jennifer Jarin (UC Berkeley), Phoebe Seaton (Leadership Counsel for Justice and Accountability), Laurel Firestone (Community Water Center)
  • “The effects of state power on emotion, and of emotional power on the state: Negotiating water access in East Porterville” Dr. Michael Egge (Portland State University), Dr. Idowu Ajibade (Portland State University)

Progress in Household Water Insecurity Research 5: Quantitative Approaches

  • “Plumbing urban inequality in the United States: an exploration of spatial and social inequality in household water insecurity” Shiloh Deitz (King’s College London), Dr. Katie Meehan (King’s College London)
  • “Water Insecurity in Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area: analyzing the case of Campos Elíseos in Duque de Caxias municipality” Dr. Ana Britto (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Suyá Quintslr (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Dr. Cleonice Puggian (State University of Rio de Janeiro), Bianca Silva (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca)
  • “A Geographic Assessment of Water and Sewer Service Affordability in the Detroit Metropolitan Area” Dr. Elizabeth Mack (Michigan State University), Sarah Wrase (Michigan State University)
  • “Assessing Smallholder Food and Water Access in the Context of Cumulative Hazards and Stressors: An Integrated Approach” Dr. Christopher M Bacon (Department of Environmental Studies and Science, Santa Clara University), Dr. William A Sundstrom (Department of Economics, Santa Clara University), Dr. Iris T Stewart (Department of Environmental Studies and Sciences, Sana Clara University), Dr. Edwin P Maurer (Civil, Environmental, and Sustainable Engineering, Santa Clara University)
  • “Using Multiple-Variable Indicator Kriging for Evaluating Water Quality from Private Household Water-Wells in Gaston County, NC” Claudio Owusu (Department of Geography and Earth Sciences and Center for Applied Geographic Information Science, University of North Carolina), Samantha Dye (Gaston County Department of Health & Human Services), Dr. Wenwu Tang (Department of Geography and Earth Sciences and Center for Applied Geographic Information Science, University of North Carolina), Dr. Eric Delmelle (Department of Geography and Earth Sciences and Center for Applied Geographic Information Science, University of North Carolina)

The day of paper sessions will end with an open reception from 7:00 PM – 8:30 PM in Balcony A, Mezzanine Level, Marriott Wardman Park Hotel.

Lastly, we will also have an HWISE Discussion Panel from 8:00 AM – 9:40 AM in Washington 2, Exhibition Level, Marriott Wardman Park Hotel.

We look forward to seeing you at the AAG19!

HWISE Scholar Highlight – Dr. Cassandra Workman

Dr. Cassandra Workman is this month’s HWISE Scholar Highlight.

Dr. Cassandra L. Workman is a Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology and a core member of the Global Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WaSH) Cluster at North Carolina State University. She serves as a steering committee member for the Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) – Research Coordination Network (RCN). Dr. Workman served as Site PI for HWISE in Morogoro, Tanzania.

Dr. Workman’s research concerns the biological, social, and psycho-emotional outcomes of household water and food insecurity. Workman’s previous research included the psycho-emotional and social impacts of syndemic water insecurity, food insecurity and HIV/AIDS in Lesotho. Recent research assessed household water and sanitation insecurity in Tanzania, with a focus on cultural understandings of diarrheal diseases and child health. With colleagues from NC State and ECU, Dr. Workman is developing a project exploring environmental and health hazards faced by communities in Eastern North Carolina.

She draws on theory and method from several disciplines including anthropology, geography, and public health. In addition to conducting scholarly research, Dr. Workman has worked in international development for donor organizations and implementing partners in Mozambique, Tanzania, and South Sudan. She specializes in monitoring and evaluation and social science research for food and water security projects.

Recent Publications:

Workman, Cassandra L. (2019) “Ebbs and flows of authority: Water resource management, decentralization and development in Lesotho.” Water. 11(184); https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020184

Workman, Cassandra L. (2019) “Perceptions of Drinking Water Cleanliness and Health Seeking Behaviours: A Qualitative Assessment of Household Water Safety in Lesotho, Africa.” Global Public Health. 1-13. DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2019.1566483.

Brewis, Alexandra, Asher Rosinger, Amber Wutich, Ellis Adams, Lee Cronk, Amber Pearson, Cassandra Workman, Sera Young, and the HWISE Consortium. (2018) “Water Sharing, reciprocity, and need: A comparative study of inter-household water transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Economic Anthropology. DOI:10.1002/sea2.12143

Wutich, Amber, Jessica Budds, Wendy Jepson, Leila Harris, Ellis Adams, Alexandra Brewis, Lee Cronk, Christine DeMyers, Kenneth Maes, Tennille Marley, Joshua Miller, Amber Pearson, Asher Rosinger, Roseanne Schuster, Justin Stoller, Chad Staddon, Polly Wiessner, Cassandra Workman and Sera Young. (2018) “Household water sharing: A review of water gifts, exchanges, and transfers across cultures.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews (WIREs): Water 5: e1309. https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1309

Cairns, Maryann R., Cassandra L. Workman, and Indrakshi Tandon. (2017) “Gender Mainstreaming and Water Development Projects: Analyzing unexpected outcomes in Bolivia, Lesotho, and India.”  Gender, Place & Culture 24(3): 325-342. DOI: 10.1080/0966369X.2017.1314945

Workman, Cassandra L. and Heather Ureksoy. (2017) “Water Insecurity in a Syndemic Context: Understanding the Psycho-Emotional Stress of Water Insecurity in Lesotho, Africa.”  Social Science & Medicine 179:52-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.02.026

For more information and a list of her current research projects, visit her website at https://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/clworkma.

HWISE Scholar Highlight – Dr. Chad Staddon

Dr. Chad Staddon is this month’s HWISE Scholar Highlight.

Dr. Chad Staddon is a Professor of Resource Economics and Policy in the Department of Geography and Environmental Management at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Dr. Staddon is also the founder-director of the International Water Security Network and leads the research on urban water demand, under the Urban Water Security strand. Dr. Staddon serves as an executive committee member for the Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) – Research Coordination Network (RCN).

In addition to his UWE, Bristol post, Chad also maintains professional affiliations with the Global Research Institute at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and the School for Geography and Development at the University of Arizona. He is also an active member of the International Water Resources Association, the Royal Geographical Society and sits on the southwest regional committee for the Chartered Institute for Water and Environmental Management, and the Bristol Water Plc Local Engagement Forum. His current research interests lie in the areas of better understanding the nature and drivers of urban water demand and the potential for social and economic instruments to drive conservation efforts.

Dr. Staddon’s selected publications:

For more information and a list of his current research projects, visit his website at https://people.uwe.ac.uk/Person/ChadStaddon and follow him @Doctor_Chad on Twitter.

British Medical Journal Publishes HWISE Scale

The HWISE-RCN announces the latest publication, “Development and validation protocol for an instrument to measure household water insecurity across cultures and ecologies: the Household Water InSecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale,” by members Dr. Sera Young, Shalean Collins, Dr. Godfred Boateng, Dr. Torsten Neilands, Zeina Jamaluddine, Joshua Miller, Dr. Alexandra Brewis, Dr. Edward Frongillo, Dr. Wendy Jepson, Dr. Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez, Dr. Roseanne Schuster, Dr. Justin Stoler, Dr. Amber Wutich on behalf of the HWISE Research Coordination Network. This publication is based off the work of anthropologists, geographers, nutritionists, statisticians and epidemiologists, among others, in 28 sites across four continents. Congratulations on a wonderful article! We are excited to see how the scale is implemented worldwide.


Introduction A wide range of water-related problems contribute to the global burden of disease. Despite the many plausible consequences for health and well-being, there is no validated tool to measure individual- or household-level water insecurity equivalently across varying cultural and ecological settings. Accordingly, we are developing the Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale to measure household-level water insecurity in multiple contexts.

Methods and analysis After domain specification and item development, items were assessed for both content and face validity. Retained items are being asked in surveys in 28 sites globally in which water-related problems have been reported (eg, shortages, excess water and issues with quality), with a target of at least 250 participants from each site. Scale development will draw on analytic methods from both classical test and item response theories and include item reduction and factor structure identification. Scale evaluation will entail assessments of reliability, and predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity, as well as the assessment of differentiation between known groups.

This is an open access article and can be viewed with the following link:http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023558

HWISE Scholar Highlight: Dr. Michelle Kooy



Dr. Michelle Kooy is an Associate Professor of the Politics of Urban Water at IHE-Delft Institute for Water Education. She is also the Coordinator for the IHE Graduate School in Water & Development and lecturer in the MSc Programme on Water Governance. Dr. Kooy is cross-appointed to the Department of Geography, Planning and International Development Studies at the University of Amsterdam, and is a Senior Editor of the international multi-disciplinary review journal WIRES-Water.

Dr. Kooy’s research is concerned with how inequalities in access to water and exposure to water-related risks in and across urban spaces are mediated through water infrastructure. Theorizing the politics of water infrastructure from the global south she decenters the role of centralized networks in her analysis, focusing instead on the ways in which urban water systems are connected through a range of practices and technologies, and how these simultaneously social, technical, and ecological connections shape the uneven distribution of water and related risks within urban spaces and across rural/urban boundaries.

Her current projects on urban water inequalities in cities of Arusha (Tanzania), Kampala (Uganda); Jakarta, Indonesia; and Maputo (Mozambique) analyze the politics of the urban water cycle to ask how existing interactions between wastewater, piped water, groundwater, surface water are made, and how evenly the costs and benefits are spread across society. This also entails a concern with the politics of knowledge production on urban water issues: identifying where explanatory frameworks for urban water problems come from, the power relations embedded within their assumptions, and their accuracy in explaining dynamics of urban water supply cities of the South.

Dr. Kooy’s selected publications:

Batubara, Kooy, and Zwarteveen (2018) Uneven Urbanisation: Connecting flows of water to flows of people and capital through Jakarta’s flood infrastructureAntipode https://doi.org/10.1111/anti.12401

Rusca, Alda, and Kooy (2018) Sanitation Justice? Addressing the multiple dimensions of urban sanitation inequalities, book chapter in Water Justice, eds. Boelens, Perrault, Vos. Cambridge University Press.

Furlong and Kooy (2017) Worlding Water Supply: Rethinking beyond the network in JakartaInternational Journal of Urban and Regional Research 41(6): 888-903.

Alda, C., Kooy, M., Rusca, M. (2017) Mapping operation and maintenance: an everyday urbanism analysis of inequalities within piped water supply in Lilongwe, Malawi. Urban Geography  (download open access version here)

Walter, Kooy, and Prabaharyaka (2017) The role of bottled drinking water in achieving SDG 6.1: An analysis of affordability and equity from Jakarta, IndonesiaInternational Journal of Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development

Zwarteveen, Kemerink-Seyoum, Kooy, Evers, Acevedo-Guerrero, Batubara, Faber, Flamini, Boakye-Ansah, Faber, Flamini, Cuadrado-Quesada, Fantini, Gupta, Hasan, ter Horst, Jamali, Jaspers, Obani, Schwartz, Shubber, Smit, Torio, Tutusaus (2017) The politics of water governance: distributions of water, authority, and knowledgeWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews on Water

Wesselink, A., Kooy, M., Warner, J. (2016) Socio-hydrology and hydrosocial analysis: towards dialogues across disciplines. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews on Water.

Kooy, M., Walter, C., Prabaharyaka, I. (2016) Inclusive development of urban water services in Jakarta: the role of groundwater. Habitat International 

For more information and a list of her current research projects, visit her website at https://www.un-ihe.org/michelle-kooy.

HWISE Scholar Highlight: Dr. Amber Pearson


Dr. Amber Pearson is an Assistant Professor in Department of Geography, Environment & Spatial Sciences and the Environmental Science and Policy Program at Michigan State University. She is an adjunct fellow at the University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand and part of MSU’s Global Water Initiative. Dr. Pearson serves as a steering committee member in the HWISE-RCN and is this month’s HWISE Scholar Highlight.

Dr. Pearson is a health geographer with a focus on social justice and understanding the unexpected tenacity, adaptability and resilience of the underprivileged, while paying careful attention to the structural and social factors that led to disadvantage in the first place. She has diverse regional interests from poor to wealthy countries. Her features geospatial and epidemiologic methods and critical development thinking.

Her water research is at the intersection of spatial and social dimensions of health with a focus on water security. Her overall research goal is to understand the interactions between human-induced ecological change, political and social dimensions of access to water, and human agency/coping strategies to improve health and wellbeing.

Dr. Pearson’s latest publications:

Whitehead, J., Pearson, A. L., Lawrenson, R., & Atatoa‐Carr, P. (2018). Framework for examining the spatial equity and sustainability of general practitioner services. Australian Journal of Rural Health26(5), 336-341.

Rzotkiewicz, A., Pearson, A. L., Dougherty, B. V., Shortridge, A., & Wilson, N. (2018). Systematic review of the use of Google Street View in health research: major themes, strengths, weaknesses and possibilities for future research. Health & place52, 240-246.

Pearson, A. L., Rzotkiewicz, A., & Namanya, J. (2017). Perceived access to water: Associations with health in rural Uganda. American Journal of Rural Development5(3), 55-64.

Pearson, A. L. (2016). Comparison of methods to estimate water access: a pilot study of a GPS-based approach in low resource settings. International journal of health geographics15(1), 33.

Pearson, A. L., Zwickle, A., Namanya, J., Rzotkiewicz, A., Zwickle A., Mwita, E. (2016). Seasonal shifts in primary water source type: a comparison of largely pastoral communities in Uganda and Tanzania. International journal of environmental research and public health13(2), 169.

Pearson, A. L., Mayer, J. D., & Bradley, D. J. (2015). Coping with household water scarcity in the savannah today: implications for health and climate change into the future. Earth Interactions19(8), 1-14.

For more information you can visit her website at https://msu.edu/~apearson/.

HWISE Scholar Highlight: Dr. Farhana Sultana

Dr. Farhana Sultana is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geography at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs of Syracuse University, where she is also the Research Director for Environmental Collaboration and Conflicts at the Program for the Advancement of Research on Conflicts and Collaboration (PARCC). Dr. Sultana lends her expertise as a steering committee member of the HWISE-RCN. This month we are highlighting her work as an HWISE scholar.

Dr. Sultana is an internationally recognized interdisciplinary scholar of political ecology, water governance, post‐colonial development, social and environmental justice, climate change, and gender. Her research and scholar-activism draw from her experiences of having lived and worked on three continents as well as from her backgrounds in the natural sciences, social sciences, and policy experience. Dr. Sultana is able to ground her research through her time as a Programme Officer with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) from 1998 to 2001. Additionally, in 2017, Dr. Sultana was invited to speak at The Vatican’s Pontifical Academy of Sciences on the human right to water (Picture Below).


Dr. Sultana meeting with His Holiness Pope Francis at The Vatican’s Pontifical Academy of Sciences after her invited talk there in 2017.

Author of several dozen publications, her recent books are The Right to Water: Politics, Governance and Social Struggles (2012) and Eating, Drinking: Surviving (2017), and Water: Governance, Justice and the Right to Water (forthcoming 2019). Please also see below for Dr. Sultana’s most recent publications:

Sultana, F. 2018 “An(Other) Geographical Critique of Development and SDGs” Dialogues in Human Geography Vol. 8, No. 2, Pp. 186-190. (Open PDF)

Sultana, Farhana 2018. “The False Equivalence of Academic Freedom and Free Speech: Defending Academic Integrity in the Age of White Supremacy, Colonial Nostalgia, and Anti-intellectualism” ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies. Vol. 17, No. 2, Pp. 228-57. (Open PDF)

Sultana, Farhana 2018 “Water Justice: Why it Matters and How to Achieve it” Water International Vol. 43, No. 4, Pp. 483-493. (Open PDF)

Sultana, Farhana 2018, “Gender and Water in a Changing Climate: Challenges and Prospects” Water Security Across the Gender Divide, Christiane Fröhlich, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades and Henri Myrttinen (Eds.) Springer: The Netherlands. Pp. 17-33. (Open PDF)

Sultana, Farhana 2017 “Reflexivity” The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology, Douglas Richardson  et al. (Eds.),Wiley-Blackwell and the Association of American Geographers. Pp. 105. (Open PDF)

For more information you can visit Dr. Sultana’s website at http://www.farhanasultana.com/ and follow her on social media @farhana_h2o.

HWISE Scale: A cross-culturally validated scale to measure household water insecurity

Author:  Josh Miller, HWISE Data Coordinator, Northwestern University

Currently, four billion people face severe water scarcity for at least one month each year. As such, the World Economic Forum has ranked water crises as being among the highest global risks to society and the economy. While we can measure water scarcity at the level of the nation or state, it has long been impossible to measure water insecurity at the level where it is experienced: the household. For this reason, our consortium of over 40 researchers has developed the first cross-nationally validated instrument to measure household water security: the Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale. In order to identify the experiences most salient across diverse cultural and ecological settings, we implemented the HWISE Scale in 28 sites, representing over 20 counties.

HWISE Scale Map

Map of sites where the HWISE Scale has been implemented.

The HWISE Scale offers a finer resolution measurement of water insecurity, which is critical for identifying vulnerable populations, allocating resources, and evaluating the impacts and cost-effectiveness of water-related interventions and policies. Further, the short, easy-to-use HWISE Scale fills a measurement gap identified by the UN in its Water Action Decade (2018-2028) plan. By the end of 2018, we hope to release the scale for use by researchers, policymakers, NGOs, and program implementers.